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[zz]winner比loser赢在哪?

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Carol Dweck非常痴迷于对“失败”的研究。你知道的,有些人好像生来就是winner,做什么事都很顺利都很成功,而另外一些人则一直很无助,好像这辈子注 定是个loser。 Dweck也发现了这一点,而且,她还下定决心要找到其中的原因。于是,她开始观察小孩子,并企图从两组不同的小朋友中找到他们之间的差异,以及问题的答 案。

1978年,Dweck跟Carol Diener一起做了一项研究。她给小朋友出了不同难度的智力拼图,并记录了他们在解题过程中的话语。

很快地,那些无助的小朋友便开始责备自己,其中一个说道:“我觉得自己越来越迷惑了。”另外一个孩子则为自己辩解道:“我的记性一直不好。”
但是,智力拼图还是被源源不断地抛给了这些小朋友,而且越变越难。“现在一点也不好玩了。”有些孩子叫嚷道。但是他们的抗议没用,Dweck还是不断地向他们抛出难题。
最 后,这些孩子终于受不了了,他们坚持说:“我放弃了。”接着,他们就开始讨论起别的话题,想借此将自己的注意力从刚才猛烈的智力拼图轰炸中解救出来。“这 个周末有一个才艺展示,我会扮演秀兰邓波儿。”其中一个女孩说道。但即便是这样,Dweck还是不肯罢手,她给他们抛出了更难的题目。
这 个时候,你猜发生了什么?这些孩子开始犯傻了,他们表现得好像自己一开始就没有努力答题一样,以企图掩盖自己的失败。在一个案例中,有一个小男孩已经被多 次告知自己的答案——棕色,是错误的,但他还总是要选这个错误的答案,而且嘴里还振振有词:“巧克力蛋糕,巧克力蛋糕。”

这样的结果也许并不令人吃惊。假如你曾经试过跟一群小孩玩过一局游戏,你可能就看过他们做这样的傻事,而且还有过之而无不及(直接将拼图扔到地上)。

但 是,真正让Dweck震惊的——并由此改变了她的整个职业生涯的,是那些成功的小朋友的做法。她甚至在后来这样写道:“每一个人都有自己的榜样,这些榜样 在你人生的关键时刻为你指明了方向。”“这些孩子就是我的榜样。他们显然知道一些连我都不知道的东西,但我下定决心要弄明白。”

Dweck 为什么要这么说呢?因为,正如很多成年人一样,假如Dweck自己碰到了上面的情形,她会学着把自己的沮丧和愤怒隐藏起来,然后礼貌地答道:“我不太确定 自己是不是还要玩下去。”而不是像上面的孩子一样,开始翻脸不认人。她以为,那些成功的孩子会跟她表现得一样——他们有处理失败的方法,而不是直接被它打 败。

但是,事实跟她想得非常不一样。那些成功的孩子不仅仅能够接受失败,而且他们还非常喜欢失败。当智力拼图变得越来越困难的时候,他们并没有开始责难自己;他们会舔舔自己的嘴唇,然后说道:“我喜欢接受挑战。”“题目变得越难,我就应该越努力地尝试。”
当 题目变得越来越难的时候,这些孩子们并没有抱怨游戏变得不好玩,相反地,他们还会给自己非常积极的心理暗示,说:“差一点点我就能做出来了。”或者“我之 前就成功做出来了,我还可以再成功一次。”还有一个孩子,当他被给到一个非常非常难,几乎就不可能解出来的题目时,他也只是抬起头看看实验者,然后说道: “你知道的,我还想着你能给我点线索呢。”

这到底是怎么一回事呢?

Dweck发现,这些孩子们之间的差异在于思维模式。 Dweck先前一直以为:“一个人的素质是一成不变的。你要么聪明,要么就不聪明。假如你失败了,那就说明你不聪明。”这也是为什么,当那些无助的孩子开 始失败的时候,他们就无法接受现实了——因为失败刚好提醒了他们,他们弱爆了(自己是那么容易就困惑,自己的记性是如此不好)。在这种情况下,游戏当然也 就变得不好玩了——谁会愿意被时时提醒自己是一个loser呢?也难怪他们会开始转移话题。Dweck将这种想法,即认为你的能力是一成不变的,而整个世 界就是由一个个为了考察你能力所在的测试组成的想法,称为“固定型思维模式”(“fixed mindset”)。
而那些成功孩子的观念恰恰相反,他们会认为:所有的事情都离不开个人努力,而这个世界上也充满了那些帮助你去学习,去成长的有趣的挑战。Dweck将其称为“成长型思维模式”(“growth mindset.”)。这 也就是为什么他们在碰到更难的智力拼图时会那么兴奋——因为那些简单的题目不具有挑战性,他们从中也学不到任何东西。但是那些难题就不一样了。这些题简直 太棒了——可以让他们发展一个新的技能,或者征服一个新的问题。而在后面的一些实验中,甚至有一些孩子要求将题目带回家,因为这样他们就可以花更多的时间 研究答案。


然后,一个七年级的孩子还这样跟她解释道:

“我觉得智力这东西需要你自己去争取…而不是你坐享其成的…假如不能确定答案,大部分的孩子都不会举手,但是我会经常举手。因为,假如我的答案错了,我的错误就可以被纠正过来。或者,我还会举手问道:‘这事我不明白,你能帮帮我吗?’这样的话,我的智力就能不断提高。”

在那些有固定型思维模式的人看来,成功来源于证明你自己有多棒。努力是一个不好的预兆——假如你需要努力尝试,还要不断地问问题,那显然说明你不够优秀。而当这些人找到了自己能够做好的事情时,他们就会想着重复它,以显示自己对这东西有多么在行。
而在那些有成长型思维模式的人看来,成功来源于成长,而这当中的精髓就是努力——因为只有努力你才会成长。当你对某件事情已经非常擅长的时候,你就会把它放在一边,并继续找那些更有挑战性的事情,因为这样你才能持续成长。
具 有固定型思维模式的人会在自己不犯错误的时候觉得自己很聪明,而有成长型思维模式的人会在自己为某件事苦苦挣扎,并最终找到解决方案时觉得自己很聪明。当 事情不顺利的时候,前者会埋怨整个世界,而后者会想着改变自己。前者会害怕非常努力地去尝试,因为一旦他们失败了,就说明他们是一个loser,而后者永 远不会惧怕尝试。

而且,随着Dweck对研究的持续展开,她还在各个领域发现了上面的这种差 异。在人际关系中,有成长型思维的人会寻找那些让他们变得更好的伴侣,而固定型思维的人则只愿意找那些允许自己停滞不前的人(而一旦双方之间有什么冲突, 就会演变成非常可怕的争斗)。具有成长型思维模式的CEO会不断地寻找新的产品,并不断地寻找优化的方法,而具有固定型思维模式的CEO就会缩减研发经 费,然后希望从旧有的成功产品中挤出新的利润。即便是在运动领域,那些具有成长型思维的运动员都会通过不断地训练让自己越变越好,而具有固定型思维模式的 运动员则会将自己不断萎缩的技能归罪于周围所有的人。

不仅如此,Dweck还发现,一个人的思维模式是可以改变的。即便是一些很小 的干预——比如说告诉学生做得很好,而且,不是因为他们很聪明,而是因为他们在很努力地尝试,诸如此类的做法影响非常大。而随着投入的加大,她还发现自己 可以将那些原本有固定型思维模式的人改变成积极的,具有成长型思维模式的人。

而她自己也改变了——从一个总是寻找各种各样的借口, 以证明自己有多么聪明的思维定势者变成了一个寻找新的挑战的有成长型思维模式的人。这很困难:“因为我开始承担更多的风险了。有的时候,我会回头看看,看 看自己犯下的所有错误,遇到的所有挫折,然后,我会觉得非常痛苦(就感觉自己一无是处)。这时候你真想一头从这种状态中冲出去,然后往自己的脸上贴一层 金。”但是,她最终抵挡住了这个诱惑,并成为了一名业内领先的心理学家。

转自:http://michaelgr.com/2007/04/15/fixed-mindset-vs-growth-mindset-which-one-are-you/

Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset: Which One Are You?

Here is an excerpt from an article about Carol Dweck, a professor of psychology at Stanford University:

Through more than three decades of systematic research, [Carol Dweck] has been figuring out answers to why some people achieve their potential while equally talented others don’t—why some become Muhammad Ali and others Mike Tyson. The key, she found, isn’t ability; it’s whether you look at ability as something inherent that needs to be demonstrated or as something that can be developed.

To anyone who is into personal growth and self-improvement, this seems obvious. But clearly, it is not obvious to everybody: look atthis diagram by Nigel Holmes representing the two types of mindsets and I’ll sure you’ll recognize the attitudes of many people you know.

Fixed Mindset

Let’s have a look, starting with the Fixed Mindset side:
fixed-001
People who hold these beliefs think that “they are the way they are”, but that doesn’t mean that they have less of a desire for a positive self-image than anyone else. So of course they want to perform well and look smart. But to achieve these goals…
fixed-002
By definition, a challenge is hard and success is not assured, so rather than risk failing and negatively impacting their self-image, they will often avoid challenges and stick to what they know they can do well.
fixed-003
Same with obstacles. The difference here, as I see it, is that challenges are things that you can decide to do while obstacles are external forces that get in your way.
fixed-004
What’s the point of working hard and making efforts if afterwards you are still on square one? If your worldview tells you that effort is an unpleasant thing that doesn’t really pay dividends, then the smart thing to do is to avoid it as much as possible.
fixed-005
Useful negative feedback is ignored in the best of cases, and taken as an insult the rest of the time. The Fixed Mindset logically leads you to believe that any criticism of your capabilities is criticism ofyou. This usually discourages the people around and after a while they stop giving any negative feedback, further isolating the person from external influences that could generate some change.
fixed-006
The success of others is seen as a benchmark against which the person looks bad. Usually when others succeed, people with aFixed Mindset will try to convince themselves and the people around them that the success was due to either luck (after all, almost everything is due to luck in the Fixed Mindset world) or objectionable actions. In some cases, they will even try to tarnish the success of others by bringing up things that are completely unrelated (“Yes, but did you know about his…”).
fixed-007
As a result, they don’t reach their full potential and their beliefs feed on themselves: They don’t change or improve much with time, if at all, and so to them this confirms that “they are as they are”.

Growth Mindset

Let’s now look at the Growth Mindset:
growth-001
People who hold the Growth Mindset believe that intelligence can be developed, that the brain is like a muscle that can be trained. This leads to the desire to improve.

growth-002
And how do you improve? First, you embrace challenges, because you know that you’ll come out stronger on the other side.
growth-003
Similarly, obstacles – external setbacks – do not discourage you. Your self-image is not tied to your success and how you will look to others; failure is an opportunity to learn, and so whatever happens you win.
growth-004
Effort is seen not as something useless to be avoid but asnecessary to grow and master useful skills.
growth-005
Criticism and negative feedback are sources of information. That doesn’t mean that all criticism is worth integrating or that nothing is never taken personally, but at least the Growth Mindsetindividual knowns that he or she can change and improve, so the negative feedback is not perceived as being directly about them as a person, but rather about their current abilities.
growth-006
The success of others is seen as a source of inspiration and information. To Growth Mindset individuals, success is not seen as a zero-sum game.
growth-007
And so, Growth Mindset individuals will improve and this will create a positive feedback loops that encourages them to keep learning and improving.

What Now

The good news – especially if you just recognized yourself as being someone who holds the Fixed Mindset worldview – is that it is possible to change from one to the other. In fact, I think this should be taught to all children.

What’s more, Dweck has shown that people can learn to adopt the latter belief and make dramatic strides in performance. […]
The most dramatic proof comes from a recent study by Dweck and Lisa Sorich Blackwell of low-achieving seventh graders. All students participated in sessions on study skills, the brain and the like; in addition, one group attended a neutral session on memory while the other learned that intelligence, like a muscle, grows stronger through exercise. Training students to adopt a growth mind-set about intelligence had a catalytic effect on motivation and math grades; students in the control group showed no improvement despite all the other interventions.
“Study skills and learning skills are inert until they’re powered by an active ingredient,” Dweck explains. Students may know how to study, but won’t want to if they believe their efforts are futile. “If you target that belief, you can see more benefit than you have any reason to hope for.”

Does the Fixed vs. Growth Mindset theory fits with your personal experience? Does it describe well the people around you? Please let me know in the comments below.
Thanks to Guy Kawasaki.
Images credit: Nigel Holmes

from: http://blog.renren.com/blog/221022632/871468426

Written by apollozhao

2012/09/22 at 04:40

Posted in Life, Personal character

Tagged with , ,

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